Communication and social Integration

Communication of trust can facilitate cooperation and social integration (Cf. Wenzel, 2001, page 344). The effects of workplace communication on social integration are the focus of a study carried out at the University of Arizona:

Trust and Face-to-Face Communication

A study by the University of Illinois emphasizes the importance of face-to-face communication in establishing trust:

Trust between Co-workers

A study by the University of Goteborg which focuses on the question of how to develop and foster trust between co-workers:

Trust and Lies

A study at the University of Toronto has shown that a trusting attitude influences the ability to recognize lies:

A paper by the University of Muenster

A paper for an exploratory empirical study by the Faculty of Economic Science at the University of Muenster on the communication of trust:

Study by the University of Innsbruck

This study produced some interesting findings despite the fact that it does not take account of the "communication of trust" element:

Accent and Trustworthiness

A study by the University of Chicago on the effect of a foreign accent on trustworthiness:
Lev-Ari, Shiri; Keysar, Boaz: Why don't we believe non-native speakers? The influence of accent on credibility. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 2010.

Communication of Trust

In a social-sciences analysis of the general conditions of trust, the fact which it is essential to take account of is that the success of the cooperation is uncertain (Cf. Wenzel, 2002 ).This is of vital importance: trust involves opening oneself to uncertainty; it is linked with the acceptance that the subject of one’s trust, could potentially cause damage. Assuming a social problem that can only be solved through cooperation, the ‘truster’ subconsciously takes the first step by conceding that the trustee is free to reciprocate in the project or to do so step-by-step.

In order to guide the actions of the trustee in the desired direction, it is necessary to communicate with him positively and directly; both parties must interact. It is only in this kind of communicative, interactive, sequential exchange that a unilaterally initiated cooperation project can be successfully realized (Cf. Wenzel, 2001).


Blumer, Herbert: Der methodologische Standort des Symbolischen Interaktionismus. In: Arbeitsgruppe Bielefelder Soziologen (ed.), Edition 1, 1969.

Coleman, James: Foundations of Social Theory. Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, Cambridge, 1990.

Coleman, James: Systems of Trust. In: Angewandte Sozialforschung 10, pages 277-299, 1988.

Ekman, Paul: Telling Lies: Clues to Deceit in the Marketplace, Politics, and Marriage. W.W. Norton & Co., 2009.

Ekman, Paul; Rosenberg, Erika: What the Face Reveals: Basic and Applied Studies of Spontaneous Expression Using the Facial Action Coding System (FACS). Oxford University Press, 2005.

Endress, Martin: Vertrauen. Transcript Verlag, Bielefeld, 2002.

Gambetta, Diego: Trust in signs. In: K. Cook (ed.) Trust and Society, New York, Russell Sage Foundation, 2001, pages 148-184.

Gambetta, Diego; Hamill, Heather: Streetwise. How Taxi Drivers Establish Their Costumers Trustworthiness. Russel Sage Fundation, New York, 2005.

Garfinkel, Harold: Das Alltagswissen über soziale und innerhalb sozialer Strukturen. In: Arbeitsgruppe Bielefelder Soziologen (ed.), Alltagswissen, Interaktion und gesellschaftliche Wirklichkeit. Westdeutscher Verlag, Opladen, pages 189-262, 1980.

Garfinkel, Harold: A Conception of, and Experiments with, ›Trust‹ as a Condition of Stable Concerted Action. Ethnomethodological Sociology. J. Coulter. Aldershot, Edward Elgar, 1990, pages 3-54.

Garfinkel, Harold: Studies in Ethnomethodology. Englewood, Prentice-Hall, 1967.
Giddens, Anthony: Modernity and Self-Identity. Self and Society in the Late Modern Age. Stanford University Press, Stanford/California, 1991.

Gawley, Tim: Revisiting Trust in Symbolic Interaction: Presentations of Trust Development in University Administration. Qualitative Sociology Review, 3(2), 2008, pages 46-63.

Goffman, Erving: Wir spielen alle Theater. Die Selbstdarstellung im Alltag. Piper, Munich, 1991.

Goffman, Erving: Interaktionsrituale. Über Verhalten in direkter Kommunikation. Suhrkamp, Frankfurt am Main, 2008.

Goffman, Erving: Strategische Interaktion. Hanser, Munich, 1981.

Hardin, Russell: Trust. Polity Press, Cambridge, 2006.

Hardin, Russell: Trust and trustworthiness. Russell Sage Foundation, New York, 2002.

Hardin, Russell: Distrust. Russell Sage Foundation, New York, 2004.

Hartmann, Martin; Offe, Claus: Vertrauen. Die Grundlage des sozialen Zusammenhalts. Campus, Frankfurt am Main, 2001.

Henslin, James M.: Trust and the cab driver. In: Truzzi, Marcello, Sociology and Everyday Life, Englewood Cliffs, Prentice-Hall, 1968, pages 138-158.

Henslin, James M.: The cab driver. An interactional analysis of an occupational culture. Dissertation, Washington University, 1967.

Honer, Anne; Meuser, Michael; Pfadenhauer, Michaela: Fragile Sozialität: Inszenierungen, Sinnwelten, Existenzbastler. VS Verlag, Wiesbaden, 2010.

Luhmann, Niklas: Vertrauen. Ein Mechanismus der Reduktion sozialer Komplexität. Enke, Stuttgart, 1973.

Luhmann, Niklas: Vertrautheit, Zuversicht, Vertrauen. Probleme und Alternativen. M. In: Harmann C. H. Offe, 2001, pages 143-160.

Luhmann, Niklas: Aufsätze und Reden. Reclam, Ditzingen, 2001.

Moellering, Guido: Trust: Reason, Routine, Reflexivity. Elsevier Science, 2006.

Parsons, Talcott: The Structure of Social Action. New York, 1968.

Sacks, Harvey; Schegloff, Emanuel; Jefferson, Gail: A simplest systematics for the organisation of turn-taking in conversation. In: Language. 50(4), pages 696-735, 1974.

Simmel, Georg: Soziologie. Gesamtausgabe Band 11. Suhrkamp, Frankfurt am Main, 1992.

Thomas, William; Thomas, Dorothy: Die Definition der Situation. In: Steinert, Heinz (ed.), Symbolische Interaktion. Arbeiten zur reflexiven Soziologie, Stuttgart, 1973, pages 333-335.

Weber, Max: Gesammelte Aufsätze zur Religionssoziologie. Tübingen, Band 1, 1978.

Weihrich, Margit (ed.); Böhle, Fritz: Handeln unter Unsicherheit. VS Verlag, Wiesbaden, 2009.

Wenzel, Harald: Die Abenteuer der Kommunikation. Echtzeitmedien und der Handlungsraum der Hochmoderne. Velbrück Wissenschaft, Weilerswist, 2001.

Wenzel, Harald: Vertrauen und die Integration moderner Gesellschaften., In: Schmalz-Bruns, Rainer; Zintl, Reinhard (ed.): Politisches Vertrauen. Soziale Grundlagen reflexiver Kooperation. Baden-Baden, 2002, pages 61-76.